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Injection Equipment & HCV Disease Transmission

2003 May;70(1):49-50.

Assessment of iatrogenic transmission of HCV in Southern Italy: was the cause the Salk polio vaccination?

Salk vaccine between 1956 and 1965 by multiple use of unsafe glass syringes may have been one of the major causes of the spread of HCV infection
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12629643

Then & Now

2008- Syringe reuse a widespread problem: U.S. expert
Read more-History of Syringes

"Injection safety was often thought of as a developing world problem and we kind of took it for granted in the U.S. and other developed countries," said Joseph Perz, who works at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. "But as a result of accumulating evidence from outbreaks and surveys, we are taking a firmer stand on the need for education and firmer standards."


 

 Table of content
1843 -1987 History of Syringes Syringe reuse a widespread problem: U.S. expert- ...larger problem than once thought, even though the practice is inexcusable...hepatitis outbreaks linked to dirty syringes
 
1920-87 Global Disaster Prediction DEADLY NEEDLES Fast Track to Global Disaster- For decades, researchers warned...syringes could transmit ... efforts to defuse the crisis were failed, and today...become an insidious global epidemic, destroying millions of lives every year.
 
1970 Jetgun Nursing Instructions How to use the jetgun, detailing how the device got contaminated.
 
1988 A microbiological study Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review-...Five studies attributed 20-80% of all new infections to unsafe injections...major mode of transmission of hepatitis C... occur routinely
 
1996 CDC Jetgun Advisory Committee Faulty Design...Various routes of transmission ...documented, including ...blood products, use of jet gun injectors with a design fault that allowed blood to remain inside the equipment, re-use of contaminated needles and syringes, and indirect transfer from contaminated environmental surfaces in haemodialysis units....
 
1996 WHO Jetgun Warning When tested on animal models the metal cap was found to be contaminated after 1 in 7 injections
 
1997 DoD Jetgun Report Vaccines in the Military- Wide review of Vaccine Policies and Procedures ... says, ...jet injector nozzles were frequently contaminated with blood, yet sterilization practices were frequently inadequate or not followed."
 
1997 WHO Jetgun Statement Safety of Injections-...-Needle-free injectors designed for use with multi-dose vials...should not be used for immunization. These injectors have an inherent risk of bloodborne disease transmission...
 
1999 Federal Safety Needle Legislation Federal Safety Needle Legislation-"...accidental needlesticks...76%, the highest rate of any device ...million per year...result in the transmission...
 
1999 Global Injections Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review-...Five studies attributed 20-80% of all new infections to unsafe injections...major mode of transmission of hepatitis C... occur routinely
 
2000 CIA Warning The Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States-John C. Gannon Chairman, National Intelligence Council
 
2000 Origins of HCV Epidemic "Why does the world's medical community continue to ignore these figures...stop the practice of allowing multi-use syringes... world over. mandatory in all mass vaccination programs...contribute significantly to the scourge of disease..."  
 
2001 CIA Report Table
 
2001 Policy Change Surgery Women contract hepatitis C in surgery- National infection control guidelines are to be toughened after two women contracted hepatitis C during routine surgery in Victorian hospitals
 
2002 Small Pox Needles & Jet Injectors THE SMALLPOX VACCINE... Is the use of a jet injector gun the best way to administer the vaccination?
 
2003 Aids Crisis & Dirty Needles Aids crisis: Are dirty needles to blame?-The spread of HIV infections in Africa may be more closely linked...estimates that two-thirds... infected through contaminated needles rather than sexual contact.
 
2003 Global Burden Italy Poorly cleaned glass syringes used to administer the polio vaccine in the 1950s and 60s could have spread the hepatitis C virus
 
2005 DoD List Vaccines Given to All Troops Discriptions: Immunization to Protect the U.S. Armed Forces: Heritage, Current Practice, Prospects from DoD, Office of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army..
 
2005 Global Burden Egypt Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine... high prevalence of hepatitis C ...traced to mass treatment ... fight a common illness ...decades ago.
 
2005 Gloves Transmits HCV Disease Industry surveys show glove failure rates vary from 11 percent to 51 percent...A healthcare professional's risk of exposure and the subsequent potential for seroconversion can be significant
 
2005 Needleless Connectors Relationship Needleless Connectors and Bacteremia: Is There a Relationship? ...integral components of an infusion system...healthcare worker safety ...as part of the continuing development of infusion technology
 
2008 CDC Infection Control Requirements To avoid contamination and potential spread of infection... medications and solutions must be handled using proper infection control precautions as described in CDC guidelines and now mandated through the new CMS
 
2008 Jet injectors & Bifurcated Needles The Unintended Consequences of Vaccine Delivery Devices Used to Eradicate Smallpox: Lessons for Evaluating Future Vaccination Methods B. G. Weniger..
 
2008 Legal Advice for Patients PUBLIC HEALTH CRISIS: Queries irk hepatitis patients- Attorneys telling clients not to reveal past drug, sexual activity- Southern Nevada Health District's intent to embarrass...when it determined what questions to ask former patients of two Las Vegas gastroenterology clinics regarding their past risk factors for hepatitis...
 
2008 Multi-Risk Transmission Factors Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission- Infectious Diseases 2008, 8:69...More than 70% of the cases were acquired in hospitals through reuse of needles/syringes and major/minor surgery...
 
2008 NV State Investigation UPDATE So Nevada Hepatitis C Investigation UPDATE:"Patients were put at risk, health officials say, when a syringe would be reused on an infected patient and then used to draw anesthesia from vials intended for just one patient. The vials would then be used on other patients, potentially spreading disease."
 
2008 USP Policy Change-Multiuse Vials Recommended Practices for Multiuse Vials Status and Update to General Chapter 797 Pharmaceutical Compounding – Sterile Preparations
 
2008 VA Nevada Exposures VA Office of Inspector General,inspectionefurbished scopes were purchased and a scope broke... GI providers reused syringes...contaminated medication from vials...contracts were awarded to the GI provider group or that senior managers received kickbacks.
 
2009 2 Veterans Affairs hospital FDA Alert issued March 19, 2009. The information was released after reports that 2 Veterans Affairs hospitals, at undisclosed locations, were changing needles, but using the same cartridge
 
2009 CDC Report- Hemodialysis Unit Hepatitis C Virus Transmission at an Outpatient Hemodialysis Unit --- New York, 2001--2008 -...  negative to anti-HCV positive in a New York City hemodialysis unit Supervisory staff members failed to address these breaches. Many of the direct care staff members were unaware of ...unit's written infection control policies, including those pertaining to cleaning and disinfection. Investigators also noted the lack of a separate clean area for... has 8% risk factor
 
2010 Lawsuit Nevada ...Health officials have blamed reuse of vials ... jury...ordered Teva ... to pay $356 million in punitive damages..Baxter...$144 million..
 
2011- CDC Vaccine Guidelines CDC guidleines for appropriate vaccine administration. the following guidelines for standard practices during injections of vaccines were not followed by the military during the height of the hepatitis epidemic. Needles, syringes and vials were commonly reused.
 
2011- CDC Vaccine Guidleines CDC guidleines for appropriate vaccine administration
 
Dangers of EMG Needles  
Dried Hepatitis C Blood Exposure The Hepatitis C virus transmitted for 63 days after the virus dried and the contents of syringes and surfaces were analyzed
 
Exeter Hospital Statement All healthcare providers... access to the treatment area ...The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) conducted an unscheduled survey on June 6, 2012 following the public announcement of hepatitis C infections at Exeter Hospital
 
Preventing infection from the misuse of vials Since 2001, at least 49 outbreaks due to the mishandling of injectable medical products...150,000 patients required notification .. potential exposure to unsafe injections.
 

 

 

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