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2003 May;70(1):49-50.

Assessment of iatrogenic transmission of HCV in Southern Italy: was the cause the Salk polio vaccination?

Salk vaccine between 1956 and 1965 by multiple use of unsafe glass syringes may have been one of the major causes of the spread of HCV infection

Then & Now

2008- Syringe reuse a widespread problem: U.S. expert
Read more-History of Syringes

"Injection safety was often thought of as a developing world problem and we kind of took it for granted in the U.S. and other developed countries," said Joseph Perz, who works at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. "But as a result of accumulating evidence from outbreaks and surveys, we are taking a firmer stand on the need for education and firmer standards."


Injection Equipment & HCV Disease Transmission Table of content

1843 -1987 History of SyringesSyringe reuse a widespread problem: U.S. expert- ...larger problem than once thought, even though the practice is inexcusable...hepatitis outbreaks linked to dirty syringes ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1920-87 Global Disaster PredictionDEADLY NEEDLES Fast Track to Global Disaster- For decades, researchers warned...syringes could transmit ... efforts to defuse the crisis were failed, and today...become an insidious global epidemic, destroying millions of lives every year. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1970 Jetgun Nursing InstructionsHow to use the jetgun, detailing how the device got contaminated. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1988 A microbiological studyUnsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review-...Five studies attributed 20-80% of all new infections to unsafe injections...major mode of transmission of hepatitis C... occur routinely ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1996 CDC Jetgun Advisory CommitteeFaulty Design...Various routes of transmission ...documented, including ...blood products, use of jet gun injectors with a design fault that allowed blood to remain inside the equipment, re-use of contaminated needles and syringes, and indirect transfer from contaminated environmental surfaces in haemodialysis units.... ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1996 WHO Jetgun WarningWhen tested on animal models the metal cap was found to be contaminated after 1 in 7 injections ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1997 DoD Jetgun Report Vaccines in the Military- Wide review of Vaccine Policies and Procedures ... says, ...jet injector nozzles were frequently contaminated with blood, yet sterilization practices were frequently inadequate or not followed." ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1997 WHO Jetgun StatementSafety of Injections-...-Needle-free injectors designed for use with multi-dose vials...should not be used for immunization. These injectors have an inherent risk of bloodborne disease transmission... ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1999 Federal Safety Needle LegislationFederal Safety Needle Legislation-"...accidental needlesticks...76%, the highest rate of any device ...million per year...result in the transmission... ____________________________________________________________________________________________
1999 Global InjectionsUnsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review-...Five studies attributed 20-80% of all new infections to unsafe injections...major mode of transmission of hepatitis C... occur routinely ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2000 CIA WarningThe Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States-John C. Gannon Chairman, National Intelligence Council ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2000 Origins of HCV Epidemic"Why does the world's medical community continue to ignore these figures...stop the practice of allowing multi-use syringes... world over. mandatory in all mass vaccination programs...contribute significantly to the scourge of disease..."   ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2001 CIA ReportTable ________________________________________________________________________________________________
2001 Policy Change SurgeryWomen contract hepatitis C in surgery- National infection control guidelines are to be toughened after two women contracted hepatitis C during routine surgery in Victorian hospitals ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2002 Small Pox Needles & Jet InjectorsTHE SMALLPOX VACCINE... Is the use of a jet injector gun the best way to administer the vaccination? ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2003 Aids Crisis & Dirty NeedlesAids crisis: Are dirty needles to blame?-The spread of HIV infections in Africa may be more closely linked...estimates that two-thirds... infected through contaminated needles rather than sexual contact. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2003 Global Burden ItalyPoorly cleaned glass syringes used to administer the polio vaccine in the 1950s and 60s could have spread the hepatitis C virus ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2005 DoD List Vaccines Given to All TroopsDiscriptions: Immunization to Protect the U.S. Armed Forces: Heritage, Current Practice, Prospects from DoD, Office of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army.. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2005 Global Burden EgyptResearchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine... high prevalence of hepatitis C ...traced to mass treatment ... fight a common illness ...decades ago. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2005 Gloves Transmits HCV DiseaseIndustry surveys show glove failure rates vary from 11 percent to 51 percent...A healthcare professional's risk of exposure and the subsequent potential for seroconversion can be significant ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2005 Needleless Connectors RelationshipNeedleless Connectors and Bacteremia: Is There a Relationship? ...integral components of an infusion worker safety part of the continuing development of infusion technology ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2008 CDC Infection Control RequirementsTo avoid contamination and potential spread of infection... medications and solutions must be handled using proper infection control precautions as described in CDC guidelines and now mandated through the new CMS ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2008 Jet injectors & Bifurcated NeedlesThe Unintended Consequences of Vaccine Delivery Devices Used to Eradicate Smallpox: Lessons for Evaluating Future Vaccination Methods B. G. Weniger.. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2008 Legal Advice for PatientsPUBLIC HEALTH CRISIS: Queries irk hepatitis patients- Attorneys telling clients not to reveal past drug, sexual activity- Southern Nevada Health District's intent to embarrass...when it determined what questions to ask former patients of two Las Vegas gastroenterology clinics regarding their past risk factors for hepatitis... ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2008 Multi-Risk Transmission FactorsFrequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission- Infectious Diseases 2008, 8:69...More than 70% of the cases were acquired in hospitals through reuse of needles/syringes and major/minor surgery... ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2008 NV State Investigation UPDATE So Nevada Hepatitis C Investigation UPDATE:"Patients were put at risk, health officials say, when a syringe would be reused on an infected patient and then used to draw anesthesia from vials intended for just one patient. The vials would then be used on other patients, potentially spreading disease." ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2008 USP Policy Change-Multiuse VialsRecommended Practices for Multiuse Vials Status and Update to General Chapter 797 Pharmaceutical Compounding – Sterile Preparations ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2008 VA Nevada Exposures VA Office of Inspector General,inspectionefurbished scopes were purchased and a scope broke... GI providers reused syringes...contaminated medication from vials...contracts were awarded to the GI provider group or that senior managers received kickbacks. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2009 CDC Report- Hemodialysis Unit Hepatitis C Virus Transmission at an Outpatient Hemodialysis Unit --- New York, 2001--2008 -...  negative to anti-HCV positive in a New York City hemodialysis unit Supervisory staff members failed to address these breaches. Many of the direct care staff members were unaware of ...unit's written infection control policies, including those pertaining to cleaning and disinfection. Investigators also noted the lack of a separate clean area for... has 8% risk factor ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2010 Lawsuit Nevada...Health officials have blamed reuse of vials ... jury...ordered Teva ... to pay $356 million in punitive damages..Baxter...$144 million.. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2011- CDC Vaccine GuidelinesCDC guidleines for appropriate vaccine administration. the following guidelines for standard practices during injections of vaccines were not followed by the military during the height of the hepatitis epidemic. Needles, syringes and vials were commonly reused. ____________________________________________________________________________________________
2011- CDC Vaccine Guidleines CDC guidleines for appropriate vaccine administration ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Dangers of EMG Needles
Dried Hepatitis C Blood ExposureThe Hepatitis C virus transmitted for 63 days after the virus dried and the contents of syringes and surfaces were analyzed ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Exeter Hospital StatementAll healthcare providers... access to the treatment area ...The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) conducted an unscheduled survey on June 6, 2012 following the public announcement of hepatitis C infections at Exeter Hospital ญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญญ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Preventing infection from the misuse of vialsSince 2001, at least 49 outbreaks due to the mishandling of injectable medical products...150,000 patients required notification .. potential exposure to unsafe injections. ____________________________________________________________________________________________


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Revised: May 15, 2015 .